HOME  ·  BUY  ·  DOWNLOAD  ·  CONTACT

Psychedelic Information Theory

Shamanism in the Age of Reason

References

Electroencephalography

WikiPedia.org; Internet Reference, 2010.

* Delta is the frequency range up to 4 Hz. It tends to be the highest in amplitude and the slowest waves. It is seen normally in adults in slow wave sleep. It is also seen normally in babies. It may occur focally with subcortical lesions and in general distribution with diffuse lesions, metabolic encephalopathy hydrocephalus or deep midline lesions. It is usually most prominent frontally in adults (e.g. FIRDA - Frontal Intermittent Rhythmic Delta) and posteriorly in children (e.g. OIRDA - Occipital Intermittent Rhythmic Delta).

theta waves.

* Theta is the frequency range from 4 Hz to 7 Hz. Theta is seen normally in young children. It may be seen in drowsiness or arousal in older children and adults; it can also be seen in meditation.[14] Excess theta for age represents abnormal activity. It can be seen as a focal disturbance in focal subcortical lesions; it can be seen in generalized distribution in diffuse disorder or metabolic encephalopathy or deep midline disorders or some instances of hydrocephalus. On the contrary this range has been associated with reports of relaxed, meditative, and creative states.

alpha waves.

* Alpha is the frequency range from 8 Hz to 12 Hz. Hans Berger named the first rhythmic EEG activity he saw, the "alpha wave." This is activity in the 812 Hz range seen in the posterior regions of the head on both sides, being higher in amplitude on the dominant side. It is brought out by closing the eyes and by relaxation. It was noted to attenuate with eye opening or mental exertion. This activity is now referred to as "posterior basic rhythm," the "posterior dominant rhythm" or the "posterior alpha rhythm." The posterior basic rhythm is actually slower than 8 Hz in young children (therefore technically in the theta range). In addition to the posterior basic rhythm, there are two other normal alpha rhythms that are typically discussed: the mu rhythm and a temporal "third rhythm". Alpha can be abnormal; for example, an EEG that has diffuse alpha occurring in coma and is not responsive to external stimuli is referred to as "alpha coma".

sensorimotor rhythm aka mu rhythm.

* Mu rhythm is alpha-range activity that is seen over the sensorimotor cortex. It characteristically attenuates with movement of the contralateral arm (or mental imagery of movement of the contralateral arm).

beta waves.

* Beta is the frequency range from 12 Hz to about 30 Hz. It is seen usually on both sides in symmetrical distribution and is most evident frontally. Beta activity is closely linked to motor behavior and is generally attenuated during active movements.[15] Low amplitude beta with multiple and varying frequencies is often associated with active, busy or anxious thinking and active concentration. Rhythmic beta with a dominant set of frequencies is associated with various pathologies and drug effects, especially benzodiazepines. It may be absent or reduced in areas of cortical damage. It is the dominant rhythm in patients who are alert or anxious or who have their eyes open.

gamma waves.

* Gamma is the frequency range approximately 30100 Hz. Gamma rhythms are thought to represent binding of different populations of neurons together into a network for the purpose of carrying out a certain cognitive or motor function.

Web Resource: en.wikipedia.org



This reference is included in the following Listings:

HOME  ·  BUY  ·  DOWNLOAD  ·  CONTACT